Archive for the Palestine Category

Who’s Your Daddy? Tribalism revisited.

Posted in Democracy, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Middle Eastern History, Middle Eastern Politics, Oman, Palestine with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on July 8, 2009 by desertexile

This blog isn’t only about life and society, but also about conflict.

Let’s revisit Umm Wasfi, whom I introduced last post.  What I didn’t tell you, is that in her house there is a small, black-and-white picture of a young man. I have never seen him before.  He was Umm Wasfi’s younger brother, and he was killed as a young soldier in the the 1967 war between Israel and the Arabs.  Why did he have to die? Why did those young men who were killed on the Israeli side have to die? And why are American soldiers dying in Iraq and Afghanistan now?

When considering conflict in the Middle East, and more specifically the Arab world, one must always keep in mind the balance of loyalties in Arab society. The Western-style nation state has failed spectacularly in that part of the world, and with good reason.  I wouldn’t blame the British, despite that they didn’t even pretend to create democratic systems but simply played kingmaker.  Nor would I blame the many invasions and interventions and so-called “meddling” from America and the West.  No, the problems plaguing the nation-state lie with the Arabs themselves.

It’s the very Western-ness of the nation-state as a political system that has thus far doomed it to fail.  The Arabs are a relational people.  Loyalty lies first with those closest to you, beginning with your immediate family, and then extends to your more distant relatives and your friends, your clan, and finally, with the tribe.  Arabs in the past have rarely had close inter-tribal relationships, since different tribes live in different areas.  And so down, almost at the very bottom of the list, is the Arab’s loyalty to his country, and to the Arabs as a people.

That’s not to say that the nation state cannot succeed in the Arab world.  And in some places, the idea of the nation, once an artificial creation of Britain or some other country, has begun to take hold.  In Oman, for instance, there is considerable national pride.  The Sultan is a sharp man, and has taken great pains to cultivate it.  Holidays such as “National Day,” celebrated in November, feature genuine expressions of Omani nationalism.  But it is difficult to erase centuries upon centuries of tribalism, and in times of crisis, tribalism can often resurface. When push comes to shove, an Arab can be expected to line up behind his fellow tribesmen.

Almost everywhere in the Middle East, the nation-state still enjoys very little real legitimacy beyond a superficial level.  A long-lived, successful nation-state with a stable government, spanning several generations, might have a chance at relaxing tribal bonds.  But as of yet, no such country exists.

What does all this mean for conflicts, past, current and future?

It means two things: that when conflict does happen, it happens along tribal boundaries (usually exacerbated by sectarian differences).  And that it usually happens for a reason: when the balance of power between the tribes shifts, and a new status quo has to be established.

There is, however, another factor in addition to tribalism that has played a pivotal role in nearly all Middle Eastern conflicts in the last century.  Contact with the West, first through direct and indirect imperialism and then through the West’s voracious appetite for oil, has caused the two worlds to collide.  Their relationship has been overwhelmingly characterized by a Western presence in the Arab world, rather than Arabs in the West.  I’m talking about the advent of Western imperialism and interventionism.

In fact – the arrival of Western countries as major players in Arab politics has been one of the major, direct causes of conflict.  Rather than treading lightly so as not to upset the status quo, countries such as Britain, France and America knowingly or unknowingly tipped the balances in favor of a particular tribal, sectarian or ethnic group, setting the powder keg of Middle Eastern politics alight.

In future posts, I will try to communicate how these disasters are occurring today, even as I write – from Lebanon to Iraq to Afghanistan to Israel.

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Let’s eat goat meat.

Posted in Democracy, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Middle Eastern History, Middle Eastern Politics, Oman, Palestine with tags , , , , , , , on June 28, 2009 by desertexile

bedouinBedouin tribesmen, cultural ancestors of all Arabs, have led a simple life since the beginning of time. Life in the desert has to be simple.  Put bluntly, one must find water in order to survive.  Water is more precious than gold, more costly than blood. And the wells, the sources of water, must be protected from outsiders. In an environment where resources are finite and scarce, one could hardly expect hospitality and generosity to be prominent cultural values.  And yet Arabs are one of the most hospitable people on the planet. For a close look at the specific reasons behind Arab hospitality and its manifestations, the Defense Language Institute has put out an excellent guide called Culture of the Arab World.

If rule of law is the primary value of Western society, then hospitality is the law of the Arab world.  Arabs will literally bankrupt themselves for the sake of entertaining guests.  A Westerner gains notability in his community for being an upright, law-abiding citizen.  An Arab becomes well-liked for being hospitable to guests.

I remember, as a child, camping with friends in the desert. Camping in Oman is free – all one must do is go somewhere relatively uninhabited and pitch camp. One of the families I was camping with suffered a flat tire, so we were within eyeshot of a small concrete house.  That evening, a bedouin woman drove into camp on a pickup truck. She brought platters of fruit with her – far more than we could ever eat.  (It would be shameful if she were to bring so little that we could eat it all and she would be left with nothing to give.)  Watermelons, grapes, oranges, apples, bananas, mangos, and the ubiquitous bowl of dates.  She greeted the women, unloaded the fruit from the pickup, spread a mat in the center of our camp, and proceeded to cut the fruit in pieces and put them in our hands.  She came back every night with a bigger spread each time.  We were foreigners in the neighborhood, and it would have been shameful if she hadn’t shown us hospitality. On our third night, we told her that we would be leaving. She immediately insisted that we come to her house the next morning, and she would slaughter a goat for lunch.  We were total strangers just passing through, and yet her family was willing to empty its pockets to entertain us.

When viewed in such a light, the tribal desert culture of the Arab world with its emphasis on hospitality and relationships and its de-emphasis on law is perhaps less repulsive than before.  Both nation-states and tribal societies have their drawbacks. Tribal society can at its worst collapse in fratricide, while the rule of law in the West can at times harbor injustice.  But at their best, both tribal society and Western-style democracy have the potential to foster a vibrant society.